Teacher's Guide for CALLIOPE: Roman Republic
Teacher guide prepared by: Nancy I. Colamussi, Elementary Education, B.S., M.A. Rocky Point School District, Long Island, New York.
Teacher's Note: This guide contains short answer, extended response, matching, and true / false questions requiring correction. The variation is designed to have the children think critically, as well as to test their comprehension. An answer key to the short answers can be found at the end of the guide.
Extended Response: Comprehension & Critical Thinking
The questions below can be used as written, simply answered in complete sentences, or easily transformed into longer essay (ELA) style questions or even research topics. In any case, have the students support their answers with details from the text or use critical thinking skills to create a thorough and interesting answer. Consider the level of your students when deciding how to use the questions. The questions for each lesson can be found under the article's title below.
"Rome's Early Years" (p. 4-5)
Activity: After reading page 5, illustrate a part of Rome's history as described in the text. Write a few sentences about your drawing.
"Death to the Monarchy" (p. 6)
"Rome on the Move" (p.7-11)
- Explain the establishment of the new form of government by Collatinus and Brutus.
"Imitating the Successful" (p. 12-13)
- Explain why the Appian Way was so important.
- What important lesson did the Romans learn after the Gauls invaded?
- How do you think the humiliating ceremony that the Romans were forced into by the Samnites affected their future fighting strategies?
- Explain the outcomes of the three battles that Rome fought against Pyrrhus.
- Explain the dynamics of the First Punic War.
- Many times in this article it states that Rome was saved by its resiliency. What do you think that means?
"Climbing the Political Ladder" (p. 14-15)
- The Romans chose to imitate the Greek civilization. Write about at least two of the systems that they copied.
- Write a paragraph telling about a time that you found it useful to imitate someone's idea. Describe the situation and tell if it had a positive or negative outcome for you.
Match the vocabulary words marked 1-9 with the correct definition in column A-I.
|___1. comitia centuriata
||A) course of office, a ladder of official jobs of increasing responsibility.
||B) first office, responsible for overseeing finances and the treasury.
|___3. cursus honorum
||C) second office, responsible for public works and public games.
||D) an assembly made by the people that declared war and peace. Also elected the praetors, consuls and censors.
|___5. comitia tributa
||E) officials that dealt with lawsuits, gave legal opinions and assisted the two consuls.
||F) fifth office, powerful position. Chief responsibility was to protect the Roman people from immorality.
|___7. concilium plebes
||G) assembly group which elected quaestors and some aediles.
||H) elected annually, they were the chief executives and guided the state, often focusing on foreign affairs.
||I) assembly group which elected other aediles, as well as tribunes.
"For the People" (p. 18-20)
"A Tour of Republican Rome" (p. 24-25)
- As the city expanded and its society and economy changed, conflicts arose between the Patricians and the Plebeians. List the characteristics of each group.
- Why did the Plebeians stage protests and what was the result?
- How and why did Tiberius Gracchus begin land reformation?
- What was Tiberius' fatal mistake and why did his murder set a disastrous example?
- How did Gauis attempt to continue his brother's work to aid the Plebeians?
- What brought about Gauis' death?
- What construction / developmental changes occurred when the Etruscans seized the Roman villages along the Tiber River?
- Once again, in 390 B.C., Rome's building structures drastically changed. Explain the changes and why they occurred.
Activity: Have the students research the architectural changes and build dioramas.
"A Struggle for Power" (p. 32-33)
Mark the following statements TRUE or FALSE. Provide the correct answer if false.
||1. In setting up their republic, the Romans placed the power of the state in the hands of its Kings and Queens.
||2. Only free adult Roman males who owned horses could be citizens.
||3. Some plebeians met the criteria for citizenship by owning weapons.
||4. The plebeians were able to demand and win reforms by refusing the serve in the military.
||5. The plebeians forced the patricians into allowing them to establish their own council, called the "Second Citizens."
||6. The 12 Tables became the basis for Rome's efficient legal system.
||7. In 287 B.C., the Popular Assembly was granted the power to arrest criminals.
||8. The lower and middle class merchants in Rome soon became known as the Equites.
||9. Some Equites became government officials and began to compete with the plebeians for political power.
||10. As each group struggled for more power, each appealed to the masses of poor people for support, thus making the Popular Assembly the political tool of the wealthy.
"Shattered Morals" (p. 34)
Write a summary telling how foreign wealth shattered Roman morals. Next, write about a time that greed or desire caused someone you witnessed, or you, to act selfishly. Give details.
"All for Power" (p. 38-40)
"Threats to the Republic" (p. 41-43)
- Explain why military service was both a duty of citizenship and a privilege.
- What put stress on the military system?
- Explain why Romans became discontent and refused to serve in the military.
- What radical steps did Marius take to recruit successfully?
- Explain why the misuse of Marius' reforms caused problems for Rome.
- Who was Spartacus and what was his role in Roman history?
- How did Crassus and Pompey defeat Spartacus and his followers?
- What force threatened the Republic and how did Pompey act on it?
- What was the purpose of Cicero's "First Catilinian Oration"?
- Why was Cicero referred to by his fellow Romans as the "father of his country"?
- Explain the amazing accomplishments of Caesar.
- What was the First Triumvirate?
- According to this article, what was the secret of Caesar's success?
- What drastic measure did Caesar take after the Gallic campaigns?
- How did Caesar surprise everybody?
- Why was Caesar assassinated and who was his heir?
- Answer Key:
- "Climbing the Political Ladder"
- "A Struggle for Power"
- F/Popular Assembly
- F/make laws