Teacher's Guide for COBBLESTONE ® Indians of the Southeast
Teacher Guide prepared by: Peggy Epstein, Language Arts Teacher with 25 years experience from the Hickman Mills School District, Kansas City, Missouri, and Shawnee Mission Schools, Overland Park, Kansas. Epstein has a Master's Degree in Instruction and Curriculum from the University of Missouri at Kansas City.
For "From Hunters and Gatherers to Settlers and Traders" (pages 2-5)
- to develop an appreciation for other cultures and to understand the historical effects of one civilization destroying the culture (and peoples) of another
- to practice geography skills
- to improve comprehension skills (by practicing various approaches for understanding the organization of a piece of nonfiction, locating the main points and supporting material, etc.)
- to practice writing skills through a variety of activities both practical and creative
- to develop and enrich vocabulary
- to participate in small group and whole class activities
For "Ancient Mound Builders" (pages 6-9)
- As an introduction to this issue, read aloud the first paragraph. On a world map, point out the route from Siberia to the Southeast. Then use the map on page 12 to show the specific geographic area. Explain that for many years the existence of these peoples in
the Southeast was somewhat of a mystery.
- Tell students that you have just given them the "where" of this mystery. Next, read the second paragraph, asking the students to answer the "why" - why did these peoples end up in the Southeast?
- Returning to the first paragraph, point out that the "when" of the mystery can be easily answered by finding the dates.
- Ask students to fold a sheet of paper in half horizontally. Place the following dates on the board for students to copy onto the four rectangles on their paper (using
the front and back):
Ask students to locate and record four pieces of information about the Southeast Indians from each of these time periods.
- 12,000 B.C.
- 8000-7000 B.C.
- 6000-3000 B.C.
- 2000 B.C.
Note: This article presents an organizational challenge to the reader. Identifying the two main points is tricky. To guide students through that process . . .
For "An Interview with Archaeologist John Blitz" (pages 13-16)
- Read aloud the introduction of the article (first two paragraphs on page 9). You might want to emphasize the "basketloads" to increase interest.
- Next, turn to the last paragraph on page 9; read and explain that that paragraph serves as a conclusion to the article.
- Tell students that the middle of the article revolves around two main points. Ask if they can tell what those two points are (giving the hint, if necessary, that they are names of places).
- Finally ask students to scan the sections on Poverty Points and Moundville, determining where they are located, when they existed, and what we know about these settlements from what has been discovered at each site.
Note: Make sure students understand the words "archaeologist" and "dig."
For "First Contact with Europeans" (pages 17-21)
- Put class into seven groups.
- Every student in each group must be prepared to take on the role of either "interviewer" or John Blitz when called on.
- Each group prepares one of the seven questions (combine last two questions.) When group is called on, teacher will select one person as the interviewer; this student will read aloud the question. Other members in the group are John Blitz and must be prepared to give part of the answer to the interviewer's question.
For "No Teepees Here" (pages 21-22)
- page 17:
1. What was Ponce de Leon looking for?
2. Why was he looking for it?
3. Ponce de Leon became the first person to _________________.
- page 18:
4. What did the Calusas want from the Spanish crew?
5. What happened as a result?
6. What did Ponce de Leon do on his second voyage to Florida?
7. What did the Calusas do this time?
8. What did Hernando de Soto do to the Indians?
- page 19:
9., 10., and 11. Name the three settlements built by the Spanish, French, and English.
12. What items of trade did the America Indians want?
13. Why did Pohatan not destroy Jamestown?
- page 20:
14. Fill in the blank: "The English, French, and Spanish were not interested in
15. What did they want to do instead?
16. What advantage did the Europeans have?
- page 21
17. Why did so many Indians die from diseases brought by the Europeans?
18. What other problem for the Indians was introduced to them by the Europeans?
19. How many years had passed when the author says "it was too late to stop the European advance"?
20. The destruction of what was already "well under way" at this time?
For "Leading Their Tribes" (pages 26-29) & "A Closer Look at the Big Five" (pages 30-35)
- Ask students to make three vertical columns on their papers and to label each as follows: "rectangular w/ sloped roof," "chickee," and "grass house."
- Have students list as many descriptive phrases (direct quotes with quotation marks) as they can find for each of these types of housing.
- Students might enjoy making a little sketch at the top of each column.
- Provide each student with a large sheet of white construction paper and markers.
- Suggest students find a pleasing design somewhere in the magazine as an inspiration for making a narrow border around their papers.
- Give students an opportunity to select one tribe from those discussed on pages 30-35 and one leader from that tribe (found on pages 26-29). Have students draw a grapefruit-sized circle just above the center of the paper; inside the circle they will write the name of the selected tribe.
- Next, have students place spokes around the circle on which they will report information they find about the tribe.
- Before starting, students should make one cup-sized circle toward the bottom of the page. A long spoke marked "leaders" will extend from the larger circle to the smaller one. The cup-sized circle will be labeled with the name of the leader the
student has chosen, and spokes around it will be filled with information about that leader.
Note: Remind students that one piece of information for the top circle can be found on the map on page 12.
For "Green Corn Ceremonies" (pages 38-40)
Ask students to imagine that they have just attended a green corn ceremony and they are writing a diary entry telling what they saw, heard, tasted, touched, and smelled. You might want to assign a minimum length.