Teacher's Guide for COBBLESTONE ® French and Indian WarSeptember 2005
Teacher's Guide prepared by: Polly Zieper, B.S., M.Ed. Mrs. Zieper is a fifth-grade teacher at Everglades Elementary School in Weston, Florida..
- to increase historical perspective
- to increase understanding of the events leading to the French and Indian War
- to improve map skills
- to improve reading comprehension
- to improve verbal communication skills
Before reading this issue:
Assess the students' understanding of the following terms: fort, frontier, settlers, colony, primary source materials, terrain, scurvy, ration, cord, intercept, plunder, scout; read and discuss definitions when necessary.
'The Coming War', pp. 2-3
- The Native Americans of New France (Canada) perceived the British settlers differently than the French settlers. Why? How were the British and the French settlers different in their relationship with the Native Americans?
- How did the French feel about the new British settlers?
- Many American colonists, who were British subjects, decided to start a new life farther west, where they could get more land. What dangers did they face?
- What conflicts existed between the French and British empires in the late 1600s and 1700s?
'Wilderness War Time Line', pp. 4-8
Timeline Activity: Distribute large (9X12) construction paper to students. Students fold paper in half, the long way, and draw a line down the middle fold. On the left side of the fold, students list the dates on p. 4-9. Under each date, students summarize the important events from that year, in their own words. On the right side of the fold students illustrate several important events that they summarized.
'The Price of Neutrality', pp. 8-9
Imagine that you are an Acadian farmer living in the French colony of Acadia in 1755. The British have claimed your land for their country. They have given you and your neighbors a choice: either swear allegiance to England or leave Acadia. Make a chart, listing the pros and cons of accepting this offer. What would your decision be?
'Geographically Speaking: A World At War', pp. 10-11
Make an overhead transparency of a map of Canada and the United States, similar to the map on pages 10-11. Refer to the map on the overhead projector as you read the articles in this issue with your students. Have student volunteers come up to the overhead to color and label the British and French colonies and forts at different points in history.
'Four Bullets Through My Coat', pp. 12-14
- Explain the title 'Four Bullets Through My Coat'.
- Give examples of ways in which George Washington showed bravery in this article.
- What was the purpose in building forts?
- Why would the French have set fire to their own fort (p. 14)?
'In His Own Words', p. 15
After reading this article, discuss the importance of reading primary source material in studying history.
'Frontier Fort Life', pp. 16-19
Writing Activity: Pretend that you are French soldier living at Fort Carillon. Write a letter home to your family, describing frontier life. What is a typical day like? How do you and the other soldiers pass the time? How do you get the supplies you need? What hardships are you enduring?
'The Fall of Fort William Henry', pp. 20-22
Set up computer stations, where students rotate, learning more about Fort William Henry from the web sites listed below.
'Did You Know?', pp. 24-25
List the following names on the board:
Give students internet resources or encyclopedias to learn more about these men, who participated in the French and Indian War. Students can meet in jigsaw groups and teach their classmates about the person they researched.
'Indian Interests', pp. 26-29 & 'The Albany Congress', p. 30
Distribute a map of the United States at the time of the French and Indian War, and/or refer to your overhead transparency map. Have students color and label the territories of the Native American groups involved in the Albany Congress.
'Montcalm Runs Out Of Time', pp. 31-34
- Have students locate Quebec on a map. Why was this city so important to the British? Why was it important to the French?
- Which army, the British or the French, was larger? Which army do you think had the advantage? Why?
- How might the weather have worked against British major general James Wolf?
- Compare and contrast the final moments of Wolfe's life and Montcalm's life.
- Who won the battle for Quebec?
- In the final days of the war, what other important Canadian city did the British conquer?
'Peace at a Price', pp. 35-37
- How had the British treated the Native Americans before and during the war?
- List several promises the British made to the Native Americans which they later broke.
- How did some Native Americans respond to being treated poorly by the British after the war?
- How did the British hope to pay for the French and Indian War? How did the colonists react?
- Define these terms: Redcoats, provincial soldiers, British regulars.
- How were the provincial soldiers treated differently than the regulars?
- During and after the French and Indian War, relations between the British and the American colonists worsened. Give several reasons why.
Concluding Activity: Cooperative Group Research
Divide the class into cooperative groups. Assign each group a fort, important person, or event from the French and Indian War. Using the link below, groups research their assignment, write a summary, and give an oral report to the class.