Teacher's Guide for Cobblestone: French and Indian War: 1754-1763
THE VIEW FROM THE CROW'S NEST (page 4)
1. Of what bigger confrontation was the battle between the English and French in North America a small part?
WILDERNESS WAR (page 6)
2. At that time, what area of North America did the French claim? What area did the English claim?
3. In what different ways were both Britain and France powerful at this time?
4. Why was the outcome of the fourth war, beginning in 1754, so critical to the future of North America?
1. By 1680, what major geographic feature of North America did the French control? What was the main activity in which the French were involved in North America?
"FOUR BULLETS THROUGH MY COAT" (page 12)
2. What caused the Indians to ally themselves with either the French or the British?
3. What critical action did the governor of New France take in 1749?
4. Get an outline map of the eastern United States that has major lakes and rivers marked. Identify the lakes and rivers mentioned in this chronology. Also, include any cities and forts that were critical in this struggle between the British and French.
5. What mistake did British general Edward Braddock make in 1755?
6. What did the French encourage their Indian allies to do?
7. Why do you think the Indians were willing to become involved in this war between two European powers?
8. On your map, locate the three strategic forts that William Pitt believed the British had to capture. You can use a historical atlas as a reference to help you locate these forts.
9. Which French fort did the British capture and rename Pittsburgh?
10. When the French knew they were going to lose a fort to the British, what did they do?
11. What British victory opened the door to the West? Which victory opened the southern route to Canada?
12. Which battle was the turning point of the war?
13. What did Britain gain as a result of this war?
14. What crucial condition was established by the treaty negotiated with the Iroquois at Fort Stanwix, New York? What justification did the Americans use for violating this treaty?
1. What assignment did George Washington volunteer for in 1753? Why did the French ignore Washington's warning?
ELSEWHERE (page 16)
2. What conditions made it impossible for Washington to hold Fort Necessity?
3. Why did General Edward Braddock's men move so slowly through the woods on their way to Fort Duquesne?
4. What strategic mistake did the British make in trying to defend themselves against the French attack? How was the experience of General John Forbes different when he led British troops to Fort Duquesne two years later?
1. What group of countries halted the expansion of France during the reign of Louis XIV?
INDIAN ALLIES (page 18)
2. Explain what you think "balance of power" means when used in reference to countries.
3. How forceful a leader did Queen Maria Theresa of Austria prove to be?
4. After one hundred years of shifting alliances, which country seemed to come out the winner?
1. What did the Iroquois League of Six Nations enable its members to do?
"JOIN, OR DIE" (page 21)
2. Give examples of experiences that might have caused an Indian tribe to form an alliance with either the French or the British.
3. How did the French missionaries influence the alliances made by some tribes?
4. How did the Indians' lifestyle change because of their exposure to European cultures?
5. What happened to the Indians as settlers began to fence in the land?
6. Why did the Indians make valuable allies in war? What new type of warfare did the Indians introduce to the Europeans?
1. On your map of the United States, indicate the locations of the cities of Albany and Philadelphia and the Hudson and Potomac rivers.
TIYANOKA: SACHEM OF THE MOHAWK (page 23)
2. Why did the English want to improve relations with their old Indian allies?
3. What plan developed by Chief Canasatego had Benjamin Franklin published in the Pennsylvania Gazette?
4. What warning did Chief Hendrick give to the Colonial delegates?
5. What did Franklin hope would be the result of the Albany Congress?
6. Why didn't any of the Colonial assemblies accept Franklin's plan?
1. What critical contribution did Tiyanoka, also known as Chief Hendrick, make? How did he die?
THROUGH THE ENEMY'S GUARDS (page 24)
2. Why do you think Chief Hendrick didn't urge the Indians to be independent of both the English and the French?
1. What kind of a mission were Robert Rogers and his men on?
THE MUZZLE-LOADING FLINTLOCK (page 26)
2. Why was Rogers considered a hero?
3. In what ways was Rogers's personality a mixture of good and bad qualities?
4. Explain what guerrilla warfare is. How is it different from the kind of fighting the British and French were used to?
5. What did Rogers write about in his manual?
Why was a flint so crucial to a soldier?
ROGERS'S RANGERS TODAY (page 27)
1. What happens at a reenactment?
PHILLIP FISHER'S POWDER HORN (page 30)
2. What are the various roles in a reenactment of the French and Indian War?
1. What was carried in a powder horn?
ATTACK ON FORT WILLIAM HENRY (page 32)
2. What do powder horn engravings illustrate?
3. Follow the directions to create your own historical powder horn.
1. How did the Indians feel about General Louis Montcalm?
FRIENDS TO THE INDIANS (page 37)
2. What kind of a relationship did the French have with the Indians?
3. What did the Indians believe the English were trying to do?
4. Why were the Indians disappointed with the gifts the French gave them after the speeches?
5. What did Montcalm promise the English when they surrendered? Why wasn't he able to keep this promise?
6. What did the Indians do with the English prisoners they took?
7. What did the Indians bring back to their villages?
1. What kind of relationship did William Johnson have with the Mohawks?
THE CAPTURE OF QUEBEC (page 38)
2. What role did Molly Johnson play in British-Indian relations after her husband's death?
1. How did the British sailors deal with the fire ships?
THE FINAL DAYS (page 43)
2. Why did the British believe it was essential to capture Quebec?
3. What was Lord Jeffery Amherst to do?
4. What was French general Louis Montcalm's strategy?
5. What critical discovery did British general James Wolfe make in August 1759?
6. In your own words, describe Generals Wolfe and Montcalm.
7. Describe how the battle on the Plains of Abraham was fought.
8. What happened to the French at Montreal when the British captured Quebec?
What victories did the British win over the French in the year 1760?
FROM THE ARCHIVES
Be sure to check "From the Archives" on page 46 for related title suggestions. You also may want to check the following issues:
George Washington (April 1992),
WWII: Americans in Europe (January 1993),
World War II: Americans in the Pacific (January 1994).