Teacher's Guide for Cobblestone: Pre-Columbian North America
A PEOPLE LIVING IN GOD: EARLY NORTH AMERICAN CULTURES (page 2)
1. How do the native peoples' stories about their origins differ from the "scientific" theories about how humans came to be in North and South America?
THE A:SHIWI AND THEIR CREATION (page 8)
2. How has the climate of North America changed in the past ten thousand years? Based on that, what might we predict about the climate in the future?
3. What important contribution did the Adena people make to agriculture?
4. What food crops came from Mexico before A.D. 800? What food products does the United States currently get from Mexico?
5. Explain some of the skills and knowledge a society would need to live in big towns of twenty thousand people.
6. How advanced were the Anasazi people?
7. The early peoples in North America spoke many different languages. What other differences in cultures would you expect to find?
1. What different outside forces attacked the A:shiwi culture? What parts of their ancient culture have the A:shiwi preserved?
EARLY HUNTERS OF THE PLAINS (page 12)
2. If you were A:shiwi, why might you resent being called Zuni?
3. Why does the author say that what he is telling us is not a "story" or a "myth"? Think about what those words imply.
4. Where did human beings come from?
5. Why did the A:shiwi travel north? What are the curing societies?
6. What places do the A:shiwi still hold sacred? Find out about the sacred places of Christianity, Judaism, and Islam.
1. What are Clovis, Folsom, Midland, Agate Basin, and Hell Gap?
WHO WERE THE FIRST AMERICANS? (page 15)
2. How was the climate of North America different during the Paleo-Indian period? Give some examples of how differences in climate affect a people's lifestyle.
3. How did the Paleo-Indians get from place to place? What does this suggest about how many material possessions they had?
4. What do the archaeological sites show about the differences between the kill sites of the Paleo-Indians and those of the more recent Plains Indians?
1. What is a Clovis point?
HOME ON THE RANGE: THE RETURN OF THE HORSE (page 20)
2. When you find a human-made projectile point, what else do you need to find to help you date it?
3. How long do some archaeologists think people have been in North America?
4. Why is it harder to find archaeological evidence of early peoples who were not mammoth hunters?
1. What was the first horse in North America? How long ago did that species live?
ROCK OF THE AGES: PRE-COLUMBIAN AMERICAN MUSIC (page 24)
2. What were some of the evolutionary changes that took place in horses?
3. What happened to the horse in America? Why did it happen?
4. How and when was the horse reintroduced to America?
5. Can you think of any species in your area that appear to be on the brink of extinction?
1. What does pre-Columbian mean? If you cannot figure it out, use the dictionary.
ARCHAIC NATIVE CULTURES OF THE GREAT LAKES AND NORTHEAST (page 27)
2. How is the music of Native Americans different from European music?
3. What do songs and dances help people to remember?
4. What kinds of instruments do we know early Native Americans had?
5. Discuss what you think music means to teenagers in American society today. What messages does it contain? Why do you think some musicians become heroes to teenagers? Why do you think teens often want their music loud? Do you think song lyrics have the power to influence young people? Do you spend a lot of time listening to music? What is your favorite group? Why is it your favorite?
1. What was the lifestyle of the Eastern Woodland Indians during the Archaic Phase?
CAHOKIA: METROPOLIS OF THE MOUND BUILDERS (page 34)
2. What evidence is there of trade between tribes?
3. What do scientists theorize based on artifacts found associated with burials?
4. For what were baskets and boxes used?
1. Define the word "metropolis."
WOODHENGE (page 36)
2. When did Cahokia flourish? How many people lived there?
3. For what were the mounds used? How does this compare to other ancient societies like the Egyptians?
4. How do we know the people had fairly advanced math skills?
5. What happened around A.D. 900 that increased food production?
6. How do we know this was a trade center?
7. What are some of the reasons Cahokia may have been abandoned?
What do archaeologists think was the purpose of Woodhenge?
FROM THE ARCHIVES
Be sure to check "From the Archives" on page 45 for related title suggestions. You also may want to check the following issues:
The Eskimos of Alaska (November 1985),
Diné: The People of the Navajo Nation (July 1989),
Hawai'i (December 1990),
Joseph, a Chief of the Nez Perce (September 1990),
The Cherokee Indians (February 1984),
The Story of America's Buffalo (August 1981),
Our Own Spanish Conquest, 1528 - 1605 (March 1981),
The Legacy of Columbus (January 1992),
Indians of the Northwest Coast (November 1992),
Indians of the Northeast Coast (November 1994).