Teacher's Guide for Cobblestone: Buffalo Soldiers
A PROUD TRADITION (page 2)
1. Why did the Indians call the black troops they encountered in the West "buffalo soldiers"? In what way did this nickname probably show respect?
IN THE FOOTSTEPS OF THE BUFFALO SOLDIERS (page 6)
2. By the end of the Civil War in 1865, how many African Americans had served in the Union army as members of "colored volunteer" regiments?
3. What special units for African Americans did Congress form in 1866?
4. What were some of the reasons African American men wanted to join the military?
5. What areas of the United States did African American soldiers patrol? What jobs were they expected to do, and what hardships did they face?
6. Look at the map on page 4 and other map resources. List the names of states buffalo soldiers patrolled.
List the five events from this time line that you feel have been most significant for African Americans serving in the U.S. armed forces.
HENRY O. FLIPPER (page 8)
1. When did Flipper graduate from West Point? What indignities did he face while becoming the first African American to graduate?
OTHER WEST POINT PIONEERS (page 10)
2. Briefly describe his military career up to the time he took charge of the commissary at Fort Davis, Texas, in 1880.
3. What events led to his being charged with embezzlement? What was the finding of the military court?
4. What jobs did he hold after his military career ended?
5. What decision did a committee of the U.S. Army make in 1976?
1. What other two men were the only African American graduates from West Point prior to 1936?
THE WINTER CAMPAIGN OF 1868 - 69 (page 13)
2. Briefly describe each man's career.
1. What was the mission of the Tenth Cavalry led by Brigadier General W.H. Penrose?
COLONEL GRIERSON AND THE TENTH CAVALRY (page 16)
2. Imagine that you were one of the soldiers on this mission and keep journal entries describing the hardships of the journey.
3. What were the greatest dangers buffalo soldiers encountered on the winter campaign of 1868 - 69? How was their courage recognized?
1. Who was Colonel Benjamin Grierson?
COURAGE IN ACTION (page 18)
2. What were some of the problems he and his troops faced because of prejudice in the military?
3. In 1992, what monument was dedicated to the memory of African American frontier cavalrymen?
1. How many African American soldiers of the Ninth and Tenth Cavalry units won the Medal of Honor during the Indian wars?
WELCOME TO BUFFALO SOLDIER COUNTRY (page 24)
2. As you read through this article, make a list of the Medal of Honor winners and write a description of their acts of bravery beyond the call of duty.
Try this activity to find the mottoes of the Ninth and Tenth Cavalry units.
THROUGH THE EYES OF AN ARTIST (page 26)
1. What was Frederic Remington's first assignment as a war correspondent?
THE BAND OF THE TWENTY-FIFTH INFANTRY (page 30)
2. What qualities was Harper's Weekly looking for in a correspondent?
3. What was Remington's attitude toward the African American soldiers?
4. What did his picture of Lieutenant Powhatan H. Clarke's rescue of Corporal Scott show about the men and the frontier battles?
5. Describe Remington's second visit to the Tenth Cavalry in 1888.
6. What do his pictures tell us about the African American soldiers?
1. How did the troops' commander, George Andrews, use the band to change the attitude of people in Montana?
THE GREAT BICYCLE EXPERIMENT (page 32)
2. What responsibilities did the musicians have beyond regular soldiering?
3. How did they change the communities' view of African American soldiers?
1. What replacement for the horse was suggested by General Nelson Miles?
PEACHES AND RATTLESNAKE (page 35)
2. Imagine that you were one of the soldiers on the first test ride to Lake McDonald and back. Write diary entries describing the hardships faced, problems with the equipment, and the way you were outfitted.
3. Describe the final nineteen-hundred-mile test James A. Moss conducted to test the practicality of bicycles.
4. Why did Moss feel that bicycles were never adopted as a means of military transport?
1. With what staples did army cooks work?
THE BUFFALO SOLDIERS RIDE AGAIN (page 38)
2. Of what did meals usually consist?
3. What condition were supplies often in when they arrived?
4. What was one common remedy for the food problem on the frontier?
5. What food could soldiers expect on the campaign trail?
6. How did the Seminole Negro Indian Scouts add variety to their diet?
7. Try the trail recipe on pages 36 - 37.
1. Why did Kenneth Pollard and A.C. Jackson create the Soldiers in Blue Buffalo Soldiers Program?
2. What are some of the programs they present?
3. What are the goals of this program?
4. How do various areas of the Parks and Wildlife Department become involved in the programs?
1. Do research on the role of African Americans in the military. What was their involvement in World Wars I and II? When did the armed services become fully integrated? Do problems still exist today? Prepare a written or oral report on your findings.
FROM THE ARCHIVES
2. Write for more information on the outreach program of the Soldiers in Blue Buffalo Soldiers at the address given on page 41.
Be sure to check "From the Archives" on page 44 for related title suggestions.