Teacher's Guide for Cobblestone: St. Augustine
THE FOUNDING OF THE OLDEST CITY (page 2)
1. When and by whom was St. Augustine founded?
THE FORT THAT NEVER FELL (page 5)
2. What claim did Spain make on North America?
3. What two expeditions did France send to dispute Spain's claim?
4. What was Pedro Menandez de Avilas's response to these French attempts?
5. What other areas did he attempt to settle or occupy?
6. Why wasn't Spain able to establish a successful Spanish North America?
1. Why was Spain forced to send Ignacio Daza to build a fort at St. Augustine?
THE TIMUCUAS: ST. AUGUSTINE'S EARLY SETTLERS (page 9)
2. Write a report to King Charles II of Spain describing the construction of the fort and why the cost was so high.
3. Describe two British attempts to capture the fort.
4. What were some of the uses of the fort up to its deactivation in 1900?
5. Imagine that you are visiting the Castillo de San Marcos today and write a letter to a friend describing what you have seen.
6. The Castillo de San Marcos is still standing after more than three hundred years. Describe the building stone coquina, which was used in its construction.
1. Describe the Timucua Indians as first seen by French explorer Jean Ribault in 1562 and the French artist Jacques Le Moyne two years later.
FORT MOSÉ: PASSAGE TO FREEDOM (page 14)
2. Why did the Timucuas learn to fear the Spanish?
3. Which tribe of the Timucuas was located near St. Augustine?
4. How were the tribes organized and governed?
5. On what did the Timucuas depend for their existence?
6. How did Le Moyne describe their way of life?
7. Why did the Timucua culture come to an end?
1. Name three African tribes whose members were captured and sold into slavery in Carolina.
"NOT SO GAY A TOWN AS THIS" (page 18)
2. Why did slaves wish to escape to Florida?
3. Which Indian tribe assisted them?
4. What was the Spanish edict of 1693? Was it always honored?
5. What two new edicts did the king of Spain issue?
6. What was the name of the town the Spanish established for the freed slaves?
7. Describe the settlement and fort these former slaves built. Why did the Spanish feel it was a good idea to put the ex-slaves at their northernmost point of defense?
8. What was the outcome of General James Oglethorpe's attack on the fort in 1740?
9. What happened to these former slaves when Florida was finally ceded to Great Britain?
1. When did England gain control of Florida?
MINORCAN COOKERY (page 22)
2. What two new colonies were created? What were their capitals?
3. What were some of the changes the British made?
4. Describe the population of St. Augustine.
5. Imagine that you lived in one of the northern colonies and visited St. Augustine. Write a letter home describing daily life there.
6. What role did St. Augustine and the Floridas play in the American Revolution?
7. How did the Spanish regain control of the Floridas?
8. How long did the Spanish stay in control of Florida this second time? To whom did they cede Florida?
1. How did various groups influence cooking in the St. Augustine area?
A CASTILLO CROSSWORD (page 24)
2. Try this excellent Minorcan recipe for pilau.
After completing this issue, test your knowledge with this crossword puzzle.
THE SEMINOLE WARS (page 26)
1. The Seminoles were originally part of what great Indian nation? What area did this nation occupy?
ST. AUGUSTINE TODAY (page 29)
2. Why did they move to Florida in the late 1700s?
3. Why did the U.S. government send troops to Florida in 1812 and again in 1818?
4. What do historians believe to be the First Seminole War?
5. When were the next two Seminole wars, and what were their causes?
6. What famous Seminole warrior became the spokesman for Seminoles who were opposed to removal? How was he captured, and what happened to him? What was the American people's response to this?
7. Who was the last remaining Seminole chief, and where did he escape with his tribe?
8. What was the result of the Third Seminole War?
1. Where can you find a living history museum in St. Augustine?
"THE NEWPORT OF THE SOUTH" (page 33)
2. What activities might you see on the beaches of St. Augustine?
3. Describe St. Augustine's historic lighthouse. When was it built?
4. What fort was built in 1740 - 1742 to protect St. Augustine?
5. What home is known as "the Oldest House"?
1. What was Henry Morrison Flagler's first reaction to St. Augustine?
BURIED "TREASURE" IN COLONIAL ST. AUGUSTINE (page 38)
2. How did Flagler make his fortune?
3. What did he mean when he said, "I believe . . . we can make St. Augustine the Newport of the South"?
4. What great hotels was he responsible for building in St. Augustine? What are they used for today?
5. What were some of his other contributions to St. Augustine?
1. What type of buried treasure can be found in St. Augustine today?
FROM THE ARCHIVES
2. What is an archaeologist? What are some of the specialties found in this field?
3. Why is it important to study archaeology in St. Augustine when we have written records about the early settlers?
4. What types of questions about early life do archaeologists hope to answer?
5. What is an artifact? What are some examples of how archaeologists use them to gain information about our past?
Be sure to check "From the Archives" on page 44 for related title suggestions.