Teacher's Guide for ODYSSEYTM Hunters
"Underwater Archaeology: Our Past Beneath the Waves," pg. 6
"Uluburun: New Treasures from the Old World," pg. 11
- From the depths of oceans, seas, rivers, and lakes, underwater archaeologists
gather evidence of humankind's past. Shipwreck sites provide "snapshots" of a moment in history. One sidebar tells how archaeologists infer the age,
origin, and purpose of a ship from clues uncovered in its wreckage. Another
explains how diaries illuminate the past.
- Vocabulary, Inductive Reasonin
"More Than Money: Sixteenth-Century Spanish Coins of the New World," pg. 15
- The world's oldest known shipwreck has provided a wealth of information about
the Bronze Age. A sidebar explains the challenges facing explorers of the
- Vocabulary, Drawing Conclusions
"Polished Pennies Are 'Treasure'," (Activity) pg. 17
- The symbols and markings on Spanish coins recovered from 16th-century
shipwrecks reveal much about the politics of the time. Learn more about coins
on the U.S. Mint's new Web site.
- Inferring, Extrapolating
"Time in a Bottle," pg. 18
- Use household chemicals to shine pennies and simulate the procedures
archaeologists use to clean artifacts.
- Following Directions
"Eerie Visions, Ghost Ships, and Buried Treasure: The Cultural History of a
- A sunken ship and a sunken city are treasure troves of knowledge for
scientists from Texas A & M University, who use different methods and
equipment for each recovery mission. An activity invites students to simulate
the liquefaction earthquakes can cause. A sidebar explains how waterlogged
artifacts are preserved.
- Cause and Effect, Problem-Solving
"Titanic Discoverer Robert Ballard: Taking Marine Archaeology to New Depths," pg. 28
- Folklore, legends, and ghost stories abound in the cultures of coastal
peoples. Ghost ships burning in the night belong in the realm of the
imagination - don't they?
- Deductive Reasoning, Cultural Awareness
"Clive Cussler - Finding Adventure in Both Fact and Fiction ," (People to
Discover) pg. 32
- Oceanographer and archaeologist Robert Ballard uses new technology to probe
shipwrecks, including those of the Titanic, Lusitania, and Bismarck. His
discovery of Phoenician vessels shipwrecked 2,500 years ago in the
Mediterranean has helped historians understand better the history of trade
and cultural contact in the region. A sidebar describes the vehicles Ballard
and his team use in deep-water explorations.
- Technological Application, Science and Society
"Who Gets the Sunken Treasure?", pg. 35
- ODYSSEYTM interviews adventure author Clive Cussler about his experiences
searching for shipwrecks. In a sidebar, ODYSSEYTM readers review two of
- Technological Assessment, Science-related Vocations and Avocations
"Snake-Catching with the Irulas" (Fantastic Journeys), pg. 46
- If you discover a shipwreck, is it yours to keep? The courts will decide,
using principles derived from the "law of salvage," "law of finds," and
Abandoned Shipwreck Act. However, many legal issues remain unresolved,
including whether wrecks are better excavated or preserved in situ.
- Vocabulary, Decision-Making
Think Tank (Discussion Starters to Use Before Reading the Magazine):
- Join Karan Shah on a snake hunt with the Irula tribe of South India. The
tribe captures cobras and rat snakes in the traditional way, but their modern
purposes include venom extraction for making antitoxin and rat control on
- Vocabulary, Cultural Appreciation
Classroom "Syzygy": Talk, Connect, Assess
- Write the following column headings on the board: "Professions," "Skills,"
"Supplies," and "Equipment." Then pose this problem: "You must put together
an expedition to explore and salvage a shipwreck. Who and what will you take
along?" Compile ideas in four columns. Expand the lists as you read the issue.
- In your opinion, why are shipwrecks so interesting to people? Why does the
tragedy of the Titanic fascinate us? What attracts us to stories of
excavations and explorations of ancient ships?
Pg. 11 - "Uluburun"
Far Out!: Moving Beyond the Magazine
pg. 35 - "Who Gets the Sunken Treasure?"
- Talk It Over:
- Reread the last paragraph of this article. Does this statement serve as
its theme? Specifically, how does this idea apply to the Uluburun shipwreck?
- What new knowledge about early cultures has grown out of the work of Drs.
Bass and Pulak? What old ideas about Bronze Age cultures did they prove
correct or incorrect?
- Creative Writing: Using details from the article, play the role of the
captain of the Bronze Age vessel. Write an entry in your captain's log, or
diary. Include a description of your ship, its crew, and the purpose of your
- Art: Paint or draw what Drs. Bass and Pulak might have seen on the
Mediterranean seabed when they first discovered the Bronze Age wreckage.
Remember that not all artifacts are immediately or fully visible.
- Mathematics: In the 14th century B.C., the compass had not been invented,
and sailors had to remain within sight of land. Photocopy a map of the
Mediterranean region from a world atlas. Draw a straight line from Izmir,
Turkey, to Athens, Greece. (Uluburun is not easily found in most atlases.)
Estimate this "as-the-crow-flies" sailing distance in kilometers. Next,
measure the distance from Izmir to Athens on a route that never strays more
than 15 kilometers from land. How do the two estimates compare?
- Student Assessment:
- Dr. Bass called the discovery at Uluburun "an archaeologist's dream."
Detail two specific arguments that support his assessment.
- What is treasure? Set up a debate between those who seek monetary gain and
those who value relics for their historical significance. Challenge debaters
to present convincing arguments on both sides. Let a panel determine the
- Talk It Over:
- Why is ownership of a shipwreck so difficult to determine?
- What did the Fourth Circuit Court mean by "entitled to have that
adventure"? Why should an individual's desire to see and photograph a
shipwreck have any influence on court decisions?
- History: Find out how salvage operations were conducted in the 1960s,
1970s, or 1980s. Compare these past operations to present efforts to preserve
shipwrecks in situ. On a poster, depict how attitudes and technologies have
- Persuasive Writing or Speaking: Act as the attorney representing either
RMS Titanic, Inc. or Christopher Haver. Argue your client's case before the
Fourth Circuit Court.
- Graphic Design: Imagine you are the first to find an ancient shipwreck. On
a poster, draw a flow chart of the steps you would take to claim salvage
rights. Include in your diagram likely obstacles and ways to overcome them.
- Student Assessment:
- Summarize the basic principles courts use in awarding ownership and
salvage rights. Be sure to use correctly the phrases "law of finds," "law of
salvage," and "in situ."
- The author asks several questions at the end of this article and invites
readers to send responses to ODYSSEYTM. Write a properly formatted business
letter answering one or more of the queries. State opinions clearly and
support assertions logically.
Diaries Dredged from the Dangerous Deep
Small-Group, Collaborative Activity: Organize the class into groups of five
students. Assign each group to research a different famous shipwreck from the
past. After each student becomes familiar with the details of the case,
assign the following roles: ship's captain, crew member, middle-aged passenger, teenage passenger, and historian. The first four characters write and present pages from their diaries. The historian summarizes the facts of the wreck for the class.
Treasure Tales and Timely Topics
Community Connection: Contact a museum curator, archaeologist, scuba
instructor, antique restorer, or salvager. Ask for a presentation or on-site
visit. Challenge class members to prepare and ask questions of the expert.
Quiz Questions for Quintessential Querying
Large-Group Activity: Break the class into three groups for a game of
Shipwreck Jeopardy. One group designs answers and questions in the following
categories: Famous Wrecks, Tools and Equipment, Treasure Terms (vocabulary
from the issue), and New Knowledge (gained from archaeological discoveries).
The other two groups compete as individual players or collaborative teams.
Grim and Ghastly Groups of Ghosts
Individual / Class Project: Compile and publish a book of folklore, legends, or ghost stories with a nautical theme. Ask students to contribute original work for the book - perhaps an imaginative ghost story, eerie poem, retelling of a famous tale, or interview with an expert on folklore. Print the book and
place copies in the school library.